Introductory Psychology Instructor Cranstoun
1. A correlation coefficient indicates a(n) ______ between two variables.
A. cause and effect
C. unknown exists
D. dependent variable
2. Dr. Jimand studies the adjustment of 20 Bosnian students to college life in the United States by living in the dorm and attending classes with them. Dr. Jimand is using
A. formal experimentation.
B. the survey method.
C. the clinical method.
D. naturalistic observation.
3. A researcher tells a group of participants that as part of his experiment they are going to receive “painful” electrical shocks. He tells a second group that they will receive electric shocks, but that the shocks will only produce a “mild tickling” sensation. He asks participants in both groups whether they prefer to wait alone or with others while he sets up the shock machinery. In this experiment, what is the dependent variable?
A. painful shocks
B. mild shocks
C. participants’ answers to the question
D. the shock machinery
4. Behavior is ____________; mental processes are ____________.
A. private; personal
B. internal; observable
C. personal; private
D. observable; internal
5. Dr. Vance tests young children’s abilities to comprehend abstract metaphors. Dr. Vance is probably a
C. cognitive psychologist.
D. humanistic psychologist.
6. Drake believes that most mental illnesses stem from improper functioning of the brain. He would be most likely to agree with which theoretical perspective discussed in class:
A. neuroscientific or biological.
7. He opened the first scientific lab in experimental psychology in Leipzig, Germany in 1879?
A. Wilhelm Wundt.
B. William James.
C. Sigmund Freud
D. Franz Mesmer
7. An experimenter wants to study the relationship between caffeine and reaction time. She assigns participants as follows: Group One receives 50 milligrams of caffeine; Group Two receives 100 milligrams of caffeine; Group Three receives 200 milligrams of caffeine; Group Four receives no caffeine. Twenty minutes later all participants complete the reaction-time test. In this experiment, which group was the control group?
A. Group Four
B. Group Three
C. Group Two
D. Group One
8. Group A received progressive relaxation training prior to test taking, while Group B received no treatment. Group A is the _______________, while Group B is the _______________.
A. treatment group, placebo group
B. experimental group, control group
C. control group, treatment group
D. placebo group, control group
9. You place a raisin on your tongue and report the following: “Rough, sweet, and grainy.” According to the structuralist approach, you are using a method called
10. For some strange reason, noses have always fascinated George. He spends hours a day speculating on just why humans have noses and how noses have helped us to adapt and evolve in our environments. George’s speculations are most similar to which of the following schools of psychology?
C. social constructivism
11. In Freudian theory, the ego is to ________ as the id is to ________.
c. same-sex parent/opposite-sex parent
12.According to Freud, if a parent pushes a child to stop breast-feeding before the child is ready, what is likely to occur?
a. fixation at the oral stage
b. fixation at the phallic stage
c. fixation during the Oedipus complex
d. regression to an earlier psychosexual stage
13.According to Freud, the “id” is associated with
14. It could be theorized that there is a relationship between criminal activity and environment. In other words, as the temperature increases so do the number of crimes committed. This would indicate a/an ______________.
a. negative correlation
b. positive correlation
c. absence of correlation
d. cause and effect correlation.
.Dr. Peterson is a psychologist who sees adult clients with severe psychological disturbances. Because he is trained in psychoanalytic/psychodynamic theory, he believes his clients problems stem from
a. negative thinking.
b. experiences in childhood.
c. learning and consequences.
16..Tony is learning to be toilet-trained. He is going through which of Freud’s stages of development?
22.The Oedipus complex occurs during the _______ stage.
17..Jasmine sees a student in her class raise his hand to ask a question. The teacher sharply criticizes him for asking such a “ridiculous” question. According to the behaviorist perspective of human behavior, Jasmine will most likely respond to this event by
a. continuing to ask questions in class.
b. not asking questions even if she wants to.
c. ridiculing the teacher.
d. ignoring the criticized student.
18..To explain human development, behaviorists emphasize
c. unconscious motives.
19.According to Freud, the three systems of the human psyche that regulate the libido are the
a. id, ego, and superego.
b. conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.
c. oral, anal, and phallic.
d. internal, external, and lateral.
20. The part of the psyche that attempts to release libidinal(sexual)l energy, satisfy impulses and drives, stick within the constraints of reality, and maintain norms of acceptable behavior is the
12.Historically, the foundational principles of psychology begin first with
A. Freud's application of the unconscious mind to behavior.
B. the Greek philosophical theories concerning thought.
C. Descartes’ observation of hollow tubes extending from the brain to various parts of the body.
D. BF Skinner’s operant conditioning
22. __________ __________ is credited as being the “Father of American Psychology”. If fact, the first class he ever took in Psychology is the first class he ever taught.
a. William James
b. Sigmund Freud
c. Wilhelm Wundt
d. Rick James
23. Allison chooses boyfriends that she knows her mother will dislike. This behavior would be explained away as an unconscious process by which theorists?
24. Random assignment of participants is important in order to ensure
A. independent variables are not restricted.
B. groups have equal and balanced composition.
C. genders and ages are viewed independently.
D. all participants
33. Who gave the name of “structuralism” to the early psychological approach of identifying the structures of the human mind?
B. John Locke
C. Wilhelm Wundt
D. John Watson
34. With what psychological approach is Sigmund Freud associated?
35. “This cannot be the real opinion of the entire student body! She didn't ask me!" Haley complained. Her psychology teacher explained that
A. responses to surveys are very complex and are seldom understood.
B. Haley is correct. An accurate survey would have asked all of the members of the student body the same question.
C. a representative sample of responses can indicate the view of the majority.
D. freshmen are excluded due to their lack of experience.
36. Scientific method as applied to psychology follows several basic steps. The first step which is taken is _______________.
A .formulating a hypothesis
B.observing a behavior or phenomenon
C.designing a theory
D. determining the procedure
38.The researcher gave different amounts of medication to each patient in order to determine which amount was most effective in killing the bacteria. The dosage in this experiment is _____________.
A. the independent variable
B. the dependent variable
C. the negative correlation
D. the positive correlation
39.The research team had reason to celebrate. A similar team at another university had been able to replicate their findings. The second team
A. used the research of the first team to form a new hypothesis.
B. was able to identify the weaknesses of the original research.
C. found that the negative correlations were actually positive.
D. repeated the research of the first team and arrive at identical results
40.Case studies can provide in-depth information and often include
A. large inner city populations.
B. a balance between genders and ethnic backgrounds in a city.
C. a comparison of small towns and large cities.
D. a single individual or a small group
42. Researchers examined the relationship between men’s attitudes toward women and the number of pornographic films they watch. They hypothesized that as the number of pornographic films men watch increased, their attitude toward women would decrease (become more negative). The researchers predicted a _____ correlation.
43.Correlation coefficients can range in value from _____ to _____.
A –1.0; –10.0
B. 0.0; +1.0
C. –1.0; +1.0
D. +1.0; +10.0
44.A researcher polls shoppers in a local mall about their attitudes toward raising sales tax to support improved education. This researcher is probably using the ______ method.
45.One disadvantage of the naturalistic observation method discussed in class was
A. it is too simple to control the factors of interest.
B. people may change their behavior when they know they are being observed.
C. it is more expensive than laboratory research
D. researchers often make too many changes in the environment they are studying.
46.Two politicians are debating the issue of alcoholism. One claims that alcoholism is caused by genetic factors, and the other argues that people with alcoholism choose their lifestyle. These politicians are debating
A. observable behavior versus internal mental process.
B. nature versus nurture.
C. uniqueness versus universality.
D. conscious versus unconscious causes of behavior
47. Which of the following is not a component of the scientific method?
A. Identifying a what method of research to use
B. Developing a hypothesis to explain some phenomenon
C. Conducting research to support or refute explanations of phenomena
D. Explaining behavior by using common sense
48. Testable predictions about behavior are known as
49. Dr. Armstrong finds that the correlation between a person’s self-esteem and the amount of food she eats is –.90. This correlation coefficient indicates a _____ association between self-esteem and eating behavior.
50. Which of the following was NOT listed as being an important factor researcher’s should consider when conducting research:
40. An older adult is able to reflect on his/her life and find meaning as well as continues to live a satisfying existence.
Erikson refers to this as
41. The nature side of the nature vs. nurture debate focuses on
42. The nurture side of the nature vs. nurture debate focuses on
A. the role of hormones.
B. maturation of the nervous system.
43. All of the following are stages in Erikson’s theory of personality development, EXCEPT
A. trust vs. mistrust.
B. autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
C. initiative vs. guilt.
D. positive growth vs. regression.
44. Dr. Mason’s main research interest is the long term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Mason is a ______ psychologist.
45. Incorporating new information into existing theories is to _____ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to _____.
A. conservation; cognition
B. imprinting; maturation
C. sensorimotor stage; preoperational stage
D. assimilation; accommodation
46. 18 yr. Old Danette knows she is not at all like her parents. She could never be like them. She is her own unique person. Her style of dress, mannerisms, and language emphasize her uniqueness. According to Erkison, Danette is attempting to establish
47. Margot is 55, has retired early, and is consumed only with her garden. She calls the police if children ride their bicycles down her sidewalk and shouts at neighbors who come to her door collecting for local charities. According to Erikson, her lack of generativity will result in
D. role confusion.
48. A wise mother will give both her three-year-old and her four-year-old children identically shaped glasses of soft drink to avoid conflict over who has the most. Mother is showing her awareness of what limitation in her children's thinking skills?
A. problems in equilibrium
B. problems with object permanence
C. problems with the concept of conservation
D. problems with symbolism
49. Human Development is concerned with the patterns of change and development that begin at_________________and end at_______________
A. conception; death
B. birth; death
C. childhood; adulthood
40. You watch a movie with some scenes set in a noisy bar, some scenes containing gunfire, and some scenes containing very quiet dialogue. The noisy scenes are very loud, and during the quiet scenes you can hear most of the dialogue, but you find that if the actors drop their volume on certain lines, you cannot hear what they are saying. This reflects the fact that a message must exceed the _______ in order to be processed.
B. arbitrary value
C. absolute threshold
D. upper limit
41. .You arrive at your friend’s apartment for a big party at the end of the semester. When you first arrive, the music is so loud that it almost hurts your ears. After a couple of hours, even though the music is still at the same volume, it doesn’t bother you any more, and you like it. This change over time describes the process of
A. light adaptation.
C. sensory adaptation.
D. sensory deprivation.
42. Your friend Marfupad tells you she can "hear" in color and "see" in smells. Based on what we've discussed in class thus far, you can deduce that Marfupad has a syndrome known as:
43. The rods and cones in the retina of your eyes are categorized as:
44. The sensory receptors in your nose are categorized as:
45 The fine, hairlike sensory receptors in your ears are stimulated by:
A. vibration of lightwaves
B. vibration on chemicals
C. vibration of soundwaves
D. vibration of smellwaves
46. Subliminally presented stimuli
A. can sometimes be consciously perceived.
B. always effectively influence purchases of consumer goods
C. increase our absolute thresholds for visual images.
D. are usually mentally processed as completely as any other stimuli
47. Taste buds are bunched together in
A. taste cells.
B. the papillae.
C. salivary glands.
D. the organ of Corti.
48. As discussed in class, the following is an example of the human being's need for closure:
A. television commercials
B. radio commercials
C. the use of a "cliffhanger" in television shows
D. the use of internet media
49. As viewed in the film in class on Gestalt principles of psychology, the mind can sometimes be "preapared" or "manipulated" to perceive an object a certain way. This is referred to as:
A. Gestalt psychology
D. perceptual set
50. Which of the following is NOT a characterisitic of the human brain discussed in class:
3.Which of the following best represents the concept of perception?
a. recognizing the voice of your best friend
b. detecting a faint sound during a hearing test
c. a sensory neuron in the eye responds to a light hitting it
d. drop of sugar hitting the taste buds on your tongue
4. Sensation is to perception as:
a. making sense is to perceiving
b. noticing is to detecting
c. sensing is to detecting
d. detecting is to making sense
5. You have just arrived at the library to study and just as you are starting to read your assignment, a group of students at a nearby table begin conversing loudly. At first these extra sounds annoy you, but you return to your reading and pretty soon, you are no longer aware of them, even though the students are continuing to talk. This example is most similar to the sensory process known as:
a. a difference threshold.
b. an absolute threshold.
c. a perceptual set.
6. An architect is designing apartments and wants them to be soundproof. She asks a psychologist what the smallest amount of sound is that can be heard. Her question is most related to
A. the absolute threshold.
B. the difference threshold.
C. Weber's law.
D. the sensory receptors.
7. Visual stimuli that are close together are usually seen as belonging together; this is called
8. At a school social gathering, you hear a professor talking about proximity, continuity, similarity, and closure. From this you deduce that he is knowledgeable about:
A. monocular depth perception cues.
B. binocular depth perception cues.
C. examples of visual illusions.
D. gestalt principles of perception.
9. Objects that resemble one another are often perceived as a group. This is the Gestalt perceptual principle of
10. You are reading a typed report. The typist has made some errors: Some words are missing a letter, and some sentences are missing a word. You do not notice these errors at all. When a proofreader points them out to you, you look more closely and realize there are indeed missing letters and words. From the context, you saw what you expected to see and filled in the missing pieces without realizing it. This is normal; perceptually, humans display a tendency to mentally complete forms and figures that are actually incomplete. This tendency is known as
11. It is the process of ______ that organizes and interprets incoming sensory information
12. When looking at these letters XXX XXX XXX XXX we tend to see 4 groups of 3
X’s rather than 12 individual X’s due to the principle of
13. Gestalt psychologists emphasize that
A. perception is the same as sensation.
B. we learn to perceive the world through experience.
C. the whole is more than the sum of its parts.
D. sensation has no effect on perception.
14. The terms somatic nervous system and parasympathetic division are best associated with the
A. somatosensory area.
B. central nervous system.
C. limbic system.
D. peripheral nervous system.
15. A neurologist says that your aunt has a condition affecting her central nervous system.You know from your book that the parts affected are the
A. thalamus and hypothalamus.
B. corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.
C. brain and spinal cord.
D. hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
16. You are listening to a lecture. Then the bell rings in the hallway. When you hear these stimuli, it is ______ neurons that carry electrochemical messages from your ears to your brain.
17. The lecture you were listening to is over. The bell that rang in the hall signaled the end of class. You get up out of your seat, pick up your things, and walk out the classroom door.
Which kind of nerves sent the signals from your brain to initiate your physical movements?
18. Which division of the nervous system is composed of all the nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord?
A. the peripheral nervous system
B. the afferent nervous system
C. the central nervous system
D. the somatic nervous system
19. Essential body functions such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion, sweating, and sexual arousal are under the control of the
A. somatic nervous system.
B. cerebral cortex.
C. interneuron system.
D. autonomic nervous system.
20. Which of the following are the two integrated parts of the autonomic nervous system?
A. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
B. the central and the peripheral nervous systems
C. the afferent and efferent nervous systems
D. the thalamic and hypothalamic nervous systems
21. If you are in a somewhat stressful situation, and you experience increases in salivation, constriction of the lungs, contraction of the bladder, and an activation of the digestive tract, you know that your ______ nervous system is primarily responsible for these operations.
22. You are sitting in a public place next to a new acquaintance to whom you are attracted. You feel this person’s hand touch yours. You move your hand to return the gesture. Your heart beats faster and you feel “butterflies” in your stomach. Your hand movement was initiated by your _______ nervous system. Your increased heart rate and stomach contractions were initiated by your ________ nervous system.
A. somatic; autonomic
B. autonomic; somatic
C. sympathetic; parasympathetic
D. parasympathetic; sympathetic
23. In question #22’s example, which division of the peripheral nervous system was responsible for your physiological symptoms of increased heart rate and butterflies in the stomach?
24. Referring to the example in #22, your _________ nervous system, which includes motor nerves, is ____________ in nature, while your ___________ nervous system, which communicates with your internal organs, is ______________ .
A. somatic, voluntary; autonomic, involuntary
B. autonomic, voluntary; somatic, involuntary
C. somatic, involuntary; autonomic, voluntary
D. sympathetic, involuntary; parasympathetic, voluntary
25. Your brain has instructed your body muscles to move so that you avoid an oncoming bicyclist. Which division of the nervous system carried the information to your muscles?
A. the central nervous system
B. the somatic nervous system
C. the autonomic nervous system
D. the parasympathetic nervous system
26. Which part of the peripheral nervous system would be particularly important to a backpacker being chased by a bear?
D. involuntary muscles
27. After finishing a psychology test, you try to relax by engaging in some meditation techniques. Doing these exercises should increase the response of the ________ nervous system and result in slower heart and respiration rates and less muscular tension.
28. Just before you went on a job interview you broke out into a cold sweat, experienced shortness of breath, and felt a need to go to the bathroom. These symptoms were most likely produced by your ________ nervous system.
29.The three-foot-spike which damaged Phineas Gage’s frontal lobe resulted in
A. a hearing loss.
B. reduced ability to interpret visual information.
C. reduction in immunity to common diseases.
D. changes in personality.
30. The ability for nerve cells in the brain to change their purpose demonstrates what capacity of the brain?
B. electrochemical transmission
Participants in a study are sent to listen to a lecture either in a lecture hall filled with natural light or in a lecture hall with no windows and completely artificial light. Before leaving the lecture, they fill out a mood survey. What is the independent variable in this study?
A. lecture hall
C. type of light
D. mood survey
1. In operant conditioning, when we want to increase the frequency of a behavior occurring in the future, we would use which of the following consequences:
A. positive reinforcer.
B. negative punishment.
C. positive punishment.
D. unconditioned response.
2.In ________ __________, learning takes place on an, unconscious level; the learner is unaware s/he is actually learning.
A. positive punishment
B. negative punishment
C. operant conditioning
D. classical conditioning
3.When Michael smells steak cooking in the broiler, his mouth starts to water, and he sits down at the table. What type of learning causes Michael to reflexively drool?
A. classical conditioning
B. social cognitive learning theory
C. operant conditioning
D. positive punishment
4. This type of learning takes place when individuals observe and learn from the behaviors of others is referred to as:
A. operant conditioning
B. classical conditioning
C. memorial conditioning
D. social cognitive learning theory
5. When Davina was 8 years old, she was stung by a bee while eating chocolate ice cream:. Davina, now 25, gets nervous every time she sees chocolate ice cream. In this situation, the chocolate ice cream is what type of stimulus?
A. the conditioned stimulus
b. the unconditioned stimulus
C. the regular stimulus
D. the irregular stimulus
6.Ricardo’s parents want Ricardo to stop fighting with his little brother. They decided to use operant conditioning to decrease the frequency of his aggressive outbursts. Every time Ricardo fights with his brother, his parents will take his cell phone privileges away for a week. What principle of operant conditioning does the approach represent?
A. positive punishment
B. negative punishment
C. positive reinforcement
7.A brand new dog is brought into a classical conditioning lab, totally unfamiliar with any of the experiments. At the sound of a tuning fork, the dog most likely
A. salivates involuntarily.
B. does not salivate.
C. expects the delivery of food, especially if the dog has missed a meal.
D. salivates voluntarily.
8.Dr. Meyer is known for his difficult pop quizzes. Immediately before he springs a pop quiz on his students, he typically goes to the classroom door and closes it. Students soon learn to anticipate a pop quiz whenever Dr. Meyer closes the classroom door. Closing the door has become a(n)
15. Kelley is scolded each time she teases her little brother. Her mother notices that the frequency of teasing has decreased. Scolding Kelley is an effective
A. negative reinforcer.
B. negative punisher.
16. In operant conditioning, when we want to increase the frequency of a behavior occurring in the future, we would use which of the following consequences:
A. positive reinforcer.
B. negative punishment.
C. positive punishment.
D. unconditioned response.
17.In ________ __________, learning takes place on a conscious level; the learner is unaware s/he is actually learning.
A. positive punishment
B. negative punishment
C. operant conditioning
18. Any situation that involves learning
A. requires some relatively permanent change to occur.
B. requires a great deal of effort.
C. involves conscious determination.
D. is relatively automatic.
19. In classical conditioning situations, the _____ connection is innate, but the _____ connection is learned.
A. UCS-CS; UCR-CR
B. UCS-UCR; CS-CR
C. UCR-CR; UCS-CS
D. CS-CR; UCS-UCR
20. You feel fine as you sit down in your usual seat in German class. However, when Dr. Kraus announces that there will be a pop quiz over 100 of the most difficult vocabulary words covered in the last few class sessions, your heart starts pounding and you get a queasy feeling in your stomach. This reaction is most likely a(n)
21. Boris is trying to use classical conditioning to teach his goldfish to come to the top of the tank to eat whenever he turns on the aquarium light. He drops food into the tank and then turns on the light. After several such trials, the fish show no more inclination to come to the top of the tank when the light is turned on than they did on the first trial. What would you suggest that Boris do to improve his training technique?
A. He should turn on the light before he drops the food into the tank.
B. He should keep the light on at all times.
C. He should forget the whole idea because goldfish aren’t good candidates for classical conditioning training.
D. He should turn the light on and then off before dropping the food into the tank.
22. Watson and Raynor used _____ as a CS in order to condition fear in Little Albert.
A. a white rat
B. a loud noise
C. a scary mask
D. a rabbit
23. Carol gives her dog, Cutie Pie, a treat each time Cutie Pie sits on command. Carol is using a _____ schedule to train her dog to sit on command.
A. continuous reinforcement
B. variable ratio
C. fixed interval
D. fixed ratio
24. Which of the following is NOT associated with Skinner?
A. the Skinner box
B. operant conditioning
C. schedules of reinforcement
D. free will
25. In _____ situations, organisms learn the association between two stimuli. In _____situations, organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence.
A. classical conditioning; operant conditioning
B. operant conditioning; classical conditioning
C. classical conditioning; observational learning
26. As discussed in class, the simplest form of learning is:___________
A. really easy to learn
C. social learning theory
27. The researcher responsible for the groundbreaking “BoBo” experiment and social cognitive learning theory is:
John B. Watson
You’ve noticed that you mother has been extremely energetic lately. In the span of a week, she painted 3 rooms in your house, joined the gym and talks about how she would like to become an astronaut. You are pleased, because several months ago, your mother had a difficult time even getting out of bed in the morning. What you fail to recognize is that:
A. your mother is in a manic state
B. your mother has post traumatic stress disorder
C. your mother has generalized anxiety disorder
D.your mother is schizophrenic
You have a terrible fear of spiders. You find a therapist who will slowly expose you to spiders in order to get over your fear. First, he starts by having you view spiders on a tv screen 15 ft away. He slowly moves the tv closer until you are comfortable watching the spiders. He then hands you a picture book of spider. This slow, gradual process for extinguishing a behavior is known as(yes, we did talk about it in class yesterday…)
100. As discussed in class, Eeyore, from Winnie the Pooh, has an overall negative view of life. He always appears down, however he does interact with his friends, however annoying his continuous negative self-talk may appear. If you were to diagnose Eeyore, what diagnosis would be most consistent with his behaviors:
b. bipolar disorder
c. major depressive disorder
d. dysthymic disorder
101. Your mother has always been what you would describe as a “nervous Nellie.” She even worries about issues that have no impact on her life, such as whether California will get hit by a typhoon someday or if her favorite news anchor on the Fox News channel will ever get married. When you ask her why she’s worried about such things, she cannot find any real reason; she just answers, “It’s just the way I am.”This chronic worry indicates:
a. panic disorder
b. phobic disorder
c. obsessive compulsive disorder
d. generalized anxiety disorder